Two Passovers by Jerry and Kitty revised 12/19/2014
The purpose of this article is to show that there are two Passovers in the Bible. (This does not include the “makeup” Passover on the 14th of the following month for those who are ritually unclean and unable to participate in Passover at the proper time.)
The first Passover, a memorial, is performed by the head of the household on the 14th of Nissan (Ex 12:6), starting on the sunset of the 13th of Nissan. This “First Passover” is NOT part of the 7-day Feast of Unleavened Bread.
The “second Passover” is a ritual sacrifice, performed at the Temple and is on the first day of the feast of unleavened bread (Nissan 15th).
Deu 16:6 But at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt
Please note: I am not sure of how and why there is the Passover of Deuteronomy 16. However, it appears that the Passover recorded in Deuteronomy 16 is on the 15th day of Nissan, starting at sunset on the 14th of Nissan, performed as a sacrifice, and eaten in the temple in Jerusalem. This “second Passover” is also called a High Holy day as it falls on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which is a Sabbath day. In any case, during Yeshua’s time and even today, the Jews keep the Passover on both days. The first is a family gathering and the second is at a public gathering on the High Holy Day, which begins at sunset on the 14th of Nissan – the dawning of 15 Nissan.
I feel there is a misunderstanding of the two Passovers; many of those who are trying to keep God’s feast days are not keeping the 1st day of Passover, at home, as a memorial, as was the instructions. This misunderstanding also leads people to believe that Yeshua had a “last supper” and not a Passover as Yeshua said he did in Luke 22:15 – And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer”
In support of my thesis, the following is a collection of verses with my commentary:
Exo 12:6 And ye shall keep it [the Passover lamb] up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
The 14th of Nissan, at night, is the time that the Passover is to be eaten. Remember that the “day” begins in the dark – at sundown on the 13th of Nissan going into the dark period of the 14th.
Num 33:3 And they departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow after the Passover [emphasis added] the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
Israel left Egypt at night – with the light of the full moon! – on the day after Passover, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which God has established as a Sabbath and high holy day:
Exo 12:14 And this day [Passover] shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.
This is the Passover on the start of Nissan 14th and the night that Yeshua eat Passover with his disciples. This is more commonly called the Last Supper by the Christen community.
Exo 12:42 It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
The “night to be observed” (sunset of Nissan 14th being the start of the 15th) is the night they left Egypt. This night is when the plagues and Passover are to be remembered and talked about.
Exo 12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
The 14th of Nissan is the Passover. The next seven days is the Feast of Unleavened Bread, when no leaven is to be eaten. The point should be made clear that the Passover is one feast and Unleavened Bread is a separate feast and should be treated so.
There are eight days between the 14th of Nissan and the 21st that we are commanded to eat unleavened bread. This would indicate that the Passover eaten during the dark period of the 14th was eaten with unleavened bread.
Mat 26:17 Now the [first] day of [the feast] of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?
Note: The bracketed words above were added by the translators. The sentence should read: “Now the day of unleavened bread…” The “day of unleavened bread” is a way of referring to Passover and the 7 days of unleavened bread.
Exo 34:25 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left unto the morning.
For this reason, Yeshua CANNOT have eaten leavened bread during the Passover (last supper), as the sacrifice cannot be offered with leaven! He was eating a Passover meal with his family, before going forth to be offered as willing Passover Lamb for all the next day.
Passover (last supper) cannot be eaten with leavened bread. Knowing there are eight days of unleavened bread with Passover being the first day.
Mar 14:14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
Mat 26:18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples.
Luk 22:8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat.
Yeshua is clearly stating that he will keep the Passover.
Mat 26:19 And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the passover.
Luk 22:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
Yeshua is clearly stating that he is eating the Passover already prepared by his disciples.
Mar 15:42 And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the Sabbath,
The Preparation day is the day the Jews were preparing the lamb for Passover and the Sabbath is the first day of The Feast of Unleavened Bread (Deuteronomy 16:6). At this time Yeshua is crucified and put into the tomb, before sunset on the 14th Nissan. This is referring to the 1st day of the feast of unleavened bread, the 15th Nissan, a Sabbath.
Joh 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
Note that the Yeshua has already eaten the Passover and the Jews are preparing to eat. The Jews are eating Passover on the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread – Nissan 15th.
Joh 19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!
For Yeshua to be our Passover, He would have to be killed on the day of Passover – the 14th.
Num 9:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying,
Num 9:2 Let the children of Israel also keep the passover at his appointed season.
Num 9:3 In the fourteenth day of this month, at even, ye shall keep it in his appointed season: according to all the rites of it, and according to all the ceremonies thereof, shall ye keep it.
Num 9:4 And Moses spake unto the children of Israel, that they should keep the passover.
Num 9:5 And they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the first month at even in the wilderness of Sinai: according to all that the LORD commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel.
Passover in the New Testament
1Co 5:7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:
Col 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:
Col 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
The holydays, new moons, and Sabbaths are shadows of Yeshua.
It is important to understand the 3 days and 3 nights.
Mat 12:39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:
Mat_12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
See our article on “THREE DAYS AND THREE NIGHTS”